Neurons and Psychology Terms

Many researchers/theorists hypothesize, as their best guess, that psychology concepts arise from neurobiology (that is, “neurons firing*.“) as follows (very roughly speaking):

  • Consciousness = Neurons fire*. in a pattern that reflects “information,” as defined by information theory.  The reflected information is consciousness (as experienced by humans).
  • Qualia = Neurons fire*. in a basic*. pattern that reflects a fundamental “bit of information,” as defined by information theory.  The reflected information is a lowest-level bit of conscious experience (e.g. the “redness of red”, the “fearful feeling of pure fear”, etc…).  Qualia are better represented when we account for the probability that a neuron will fire.
  • Prediction = As part of a pattern, neurons fire*l because enough, but not all, of other connected neurons (in the same pattern) have already fired*l.
  • Memory*l = Neurons fire in a pattern in which they had already fired*l (during a past experience).  The involved neurons may not be the same cells, and may not fire in exactly the same patterns, as those of the original experience.
  • Salience = Neurons fire*l in response to a stimulus (external or internal), which yields consciousness and a motor (and/or endocrine) response to gain more information about the stimulus.  Salience and “general consciousness” are very similar concepts.
  • Concept / Abstraction = Neurons fire*l in a pattern that is a subset of a larger pattern.  The subset comprises a “representative sample” of neurons from the larger pattern.
  • More to come: Working memory, ADD, emotion, obsession, imagination, cognition, goal.

Much psychology research centers on certain popular concepts and terms.  And much neurobiology research explores them too, often in great technical detail.

But few places define a simple mapping between the abstract concepts and their underlying fundamental, neurobiological principles (which typically involve neurons “firing” or “not firing”).  Hence this post.


Calls from phone number 315-364-0660

If you constantly receive random static-sounding calls from 315-364-0660, please comment.

It traces back to a VOIP phone in Aurora, NY.  When you call them, an automated voice says the company name sounds something like “Call Evolution” with instructions to leave a message for a “John Young.”

How to Remove Stuck Brake Rotor with Tool

If you can not take off a brake rotor rusted to a wheel hub, try using a…

Gear Puller or
Rotor Puller


(Click photo for video)

Other techniques include:

  • Screwing bolt through caliper attachment holes (behind rotor) to push off rotor
  • Screwing bolt through rotor screw holes (between studs – often with impact driver) to pull off rotor
  • Smashing between studs with hammer
  • Smashing rotor from back with hammer or special swinging rotor-smash tool
    (which I’ve heard-of but never seen)
  • Adding penetrating oil or lubricant
  • Heating with torch (don’t use if you recently applied oil)

Hit took out RG3’s knee (Redskins-Ravens)



The hit (by Ravens tackle Haloti Ngata) that took out Redskins Quarterback Robert Griffin III (RG3) during the 12/9/2012 game Q4.

How to change CVSROOT or username in Windows

To update your CVSROOT and connection username (e.g. “:ssh:esalwin@”),
replace the value in each hidden ROOT file (within every sub-folder in your repository).

You can open the ROOT file with Notepad.  You can display the hidden CVS folders with Control Panel > Folder Options > View > Show Hidden Files.

Use a text tool (e.g. Notepad++) to batch-replace the ROOT value across your repository.  Or delete your repository and check it out from scratch with the new ROOT value.  Or switch to Subversion or any other versioning system invented after 1986.

Note: My environment is Windows 7 with TortoiseCVS and CVSNT authenticating via SSH to a CVS Linux server.  I used the above “find-and-replace” technique to change just my username in the CVSROOT.  I don’t know how well the technique would work under different circumstances.

On your CVS server, you may or may not also need to logout, login, and set your CVSROOT environment variable (see

Asus K501+ Nvidia 320M + Intel 330 = FAIL

The Asus K501D notebook / laptop (which includes the Nvidia GeForce GT 320M Graphics Processing Unit and Windows 7) simply does not work with an Intel 330 Solid State Drive harddrive.

(Note: The Intel X25-M series SSD does work — probably because it’s SATA II (at 3 GB/s instead of 6 GBs/s) or because it has more “nm” (34nm vs. 25nm. … whatever that means).

The Intel 330 SSD just won’t work no matter how much you play with the following options:

– Setting ACHI or IDE controller modes in the BIOS (which calls the modes “Enhanced” vs. “Compatible” respectively)

– Installing via ASUS restore disks, ASUS backup disks, fresh Windows 7 installation software, images, and clones.

– Installing ASUS stock drivers, Nvidia WHQL-certified and BETA drivers, Intel RST and “regular INF” drivers, and generic Microsoft ATA drivers.

– Installing drivers before or after Windows installation.

– Booting from DVD vs. USB.

– Booting drives in different priority orders (as set in BIOS)

That said, if you do know how to make it work, please let me know.

Proof of Coverage Online for PNC Loan

Provide proof online of your comprehensive and collision insurance at:

Their support number is: 1-877-576-7640

No 24 hour DC-area coffee shops?

The outside Starbucks around GWU is no longer open 24 hrs.

The inside Starbucks (in GWU hospital) is open 24 hrs. but only to hospital staff.

(please post if you know of any open 24 hrs)

Update: Apparently the Starbucks in Georgetown Safeway and Dulles Airport are 24/7.  And here’s a good older article about 24/7 DC coffee shops (note that #1 is now invalid).